Going multimodal

Multimodal teaching was a hot topic on one of my listservs recently.  The question there was:  is there evidence that multimodal presentation is really helpful for student learning?  The answer:  yes.

What do I mean by multimodal teaching?  In a multimodal teaching segment, students encounter the same material in different ways.  Research from cognitive psychology tells us that people learn best when they are exposed to information multiple times using varied sensory modes.  Why?  Since information from different senses is coded and stored differently, multimodal teaching gives students’ brains several “hooks” on which to hang their learning.   While helpful for every student, multimodal teaching is particularly helpful for students from different cultures or those  with various learning weaknesses that can limit their ability to learn in traditional classrooms .

Nilson (2010) describes the primary modes used in the classroom as follows:

  • Verbal — reading and writing (formal and informal), e.g. responses, directions, instructions or outlines
  • Verbal/Oral –Auditory —  Lecture or podcast (these work best if they are in the form of stories or narratives), discussions
  • Action/Experience – role plays, simulations, case studies, service learning, physical models and demonstrations , animations, virtual worlds
  • Visual – concept maps, flowcharts, graphic metaphors, images, matrices

Many of you already combine modalities, but with a little thought, you can extend what you do into even more modes.  For example, you may already have students read for background information (verbal), watch a video (visual and auditory) and discuss it (auditory).   Follow up that experience with some kind of writing (verbal) or a concept map (visual) to add in another dimension.  To include an action experience, students could role play or solve a case study based on the video or the readings.

To enhance a lecture, consider podcasting it first (auditory, perhaps some visuals) and then using class time to engage in problem solving (action), responding to written questions, writing step by step directions for problem solving (verbal) or creating a flowchart (visual).

In a studio setting, students might first read about a particular method (verbal) create a design (visual, action) then write a description of their process (verbal) or a reflection on what went well and what did not.  Or, they could narrate a podcast to go with their works (auditory).

It is usually not hard to think of ways to add another modality to your current favorites, but is it worth the time and effort?  The research suggests that it is, in that students learn and retain material longer and better.  The benefits of multi-modal teaching also include deeper conceptual understanding and easier recall of information. The course design issue is figuring out how to move some student experiences out of the classroom so you can use class time to focus on other experiences during class.

What’s a common but not particularly helpful use of multi-modal teaching?  Assigning a reading and then lecturing “over” the reading.  While this is sort of multi-modal, it’s mostly a really good way to make sure students don’t do the reading.  Instead, give the students the lecture before class (as a podcast) and work on understanding the reading in class if it is difficult.  (Presumably the lecture content will help them with this.)  Or, give the class some easier and more engaging reading for homework and make sure that your classroom combines lecture and action that requires them to use what they read.

What are some fun ways that you are going multimodal in your classes?

For more on student learning styles and multimodal teaching, check out this powerpoint by Linda Nilson from the 2010 Lilly Conference (and think about attending a Lilly Conference on Teaching!).

 

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